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Artikllar mustaqil ma’noga ega bo‘lmagan yordamchi so‘zlar bo‘lib, otlarning aniqlovchisi hisoblanadilar. Ingliz  tilida artikllarning ikki turi mavjud: noaniq artikl (the indefinite article) va aniq artikl (the definite article).                                                                                                                                      


                                                                   Noaniq artikl (a / an) 


Noaniq artikl (a/an) “qandaydir bir” degan ma’noni anglatadi, ya’ni bir turdagi bir necha narsalardan qaysidir bittasi ekanligini bildiradi. O‘zbek tilida unga aynan mos keladigan so‘z yo‘q, shuning uchun u ko‘pincha tarjima qilinmaydi. Ba’zan bir, bitta, qandaydir kabi so‘zlar bilan tarjima qilinishi mumkin. Quyidagi ikki gapni qiyoslang: 

1) Bandargohga paraxod keldi; 2) Paraxod bandargohga keldi.

Birinchi gapdagi paraxod  so‘zi shu turga oid predmetlarning birini ifodalamoqda, ya’ni bandargohga keladigan paraxodlardan biri, lekin aynan qaysi biri ekanligi noaniq. Ikkinchi gapdagi paraxod  so‘zi shu ma’lumotni (gapni) yetkazayotgan va uni tinglayotgan 
shaxslar uchun aniq narsani, ya’ni ular kutayotgan paraxodni ifodalayapti. Shuning uchun birinchi misoldagi paraxod  so‘zi ingliz tiliga a ship tarzida, ikkinchi misoldagisi esa the ship tarzida o‘girilishi kerak. Noaniq artikl faqat birlik shaklidagi sanaladigan 
otlarning oldidan qo‘yiladi. Noaniq artiklning a shakli undosh tovush bilan boshlanuvchi otlardan oldin qo‘yiladi: 
a ball - (bir) koptok;  a policeman      (bir) politsiyachi ; a house -  (bir) uy   
a man  - (bir) kishi; a book (bir) kitob;  a dog - (bir) it                          

Noaniq artiklning an  shakli unli tovush bilan boshlanuvchi otlardan oldin qo‘yiladi:  
 
an apple (bir) olma;  an umbrella (bir) soyabon;  an example  (bir) misol;                                                                                         an egg (bir) tuxum; an inkpot (bir) siyohdon; an eye (bitta) ko‘z 

            Give me, please, a pen.  
            Iltimos, menga ruchka bering (qandaydir bitta ruchka). 
            This man is a teacher.  
            Bu kishi o‘qituvchi (qandaydir bir o‘qituvchi). 
            He is an investigator.  
            U tergovchi (bir tergovchi). 
 
Agar otning oldida artikldan boshqa aniqlovchi ham bo‘lsa, u holda artikl o‘sha aniqlovchidan oldin qo‘yiladi. 
 
            It is a book. 
            Bu (bir) kitobdir.                           
            It is an interesting book.                 
            Bu (bir) qiziqarli kitob. 
 
Noaniq artikl quyidagi holatlarda ishlatilmaydi: 
1) sanalmaydigan otlar bilan: 
            I like cheese and milk.     
            Men pishloq va sutni yaxshi ko‘raman. 
 
2) ko‘plikdagi otlar bilan: 
            They are schoolchildren.   
            Ular maktab bolalaridir. 
 
3) atoqli otlar bilan: 
            I spoke to Peter about it.   
            Men bu (narsa) haqida Piter bilan gaplashdim. 
 
4) otlar oldidan egalik va ko‘rsatish olmoshlari kabi aniqlovchilar kelganda: 
            I need this book.     
            Menga bu kitob kerak. 
            I see his car.        
            Men uning mashinasini ko‘ryapman. 
 
5) o‘zidan keyin sanoq son kelgan otlardan oldin: 
            He lives in apartment 3.  
            U 3-xonadonda yashaydi. 
 
                                                                        Aniq artikl (the) 
Aniq artikl – the so‘zlovchi va tinglovchi uchun aniq bo‘lgan shaxs, narsa, hodisa kabilarni ifodalovchi otlar oldidan ishlatiladi. 
            The book is interesting.  
            Kitob qiziqarli (so‘zlovchi va tinglovchi uchun aniq bo‘lgan kitob). 
 
Ingliz tilidagi aniq artikl the odatda o‘zbek tiliga tarjima qilinmaydi. Ba’zan o‘sha  olmoshi yoki tushum kelishigi qo‘shimchasi (-ni) yoxud boshqa vositalar bilan tarjima qilinishi mumkin. 
 
            This is the book I asked you for.  
            Bu (o‘sha) men sizdan so‘ragan kitob. 
 
The hamma otlar bilan ishlatilishi mumkin. Aniq artikl (the)ni quyidagilarni ko‘rsatuvchi otlarni aniqlash uchun ishlatish kerak: 
1. Oldinroq tilga olib o‘tilgan otga qayta ishora 
qilinganda. 
 
            We saw a new film yesterday. The film was interesting.  
            Kecha biz yangi film tamosho qildik. Film qiziqarli ekan. 
            A dog has been barking all day and here is the dog now, standing outside the gate.  
            Bir it kuni bo‘yi hurib chiqdi, endi o‘sha it tashqarida, darvoza tashqarsida turibdi. 
 
2. Otning o‘zidan keyin keladigan aniqlovchisi borligini 
bildirish uchun. 
 
            The man at the door wants to speak to you.  
            Eshik yonidagi kishi siz bilan gaplashishni xohlaydi. 
            The dog that has been barking all day has finally stopped barking.  
            Kuni bilan hurib chiqqan it nihoyat hurishdan to‘xtadi. 
            Every student should know something about the history of his own country.  
            Har bir talaba o‘z vatani tarixi haqida biror narsa bilishi kerak. 
 
Aniq artikl (the) orttirma darajadagi sifat va ravishlar hamda tartib sonlardan oldin qo‘yilishi shart (bunda ko‘pincha otdan keyin birikmali aniqlovchi keladi). 
 
            This is the best cake I have ever eaten.  
            Bu men umrimda yegan eng yaxshi shirin kulcha ekan. 
            China has the largest population of all countries in the world.  
            Xitoy dunyodagi barcha mamlakatlar ichida eng ko‘p aholiga ega. 
            Mr. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.  
            Janob Everest (tog‘i) dunyodagi eng baland tog‘. 
            Charles Lindbergh was the first person to fly the Atlantic alone.  
            Charlz Lindberg Atlantika (okeani)dan yolg‘iz uchib o‘tgan birinchi insondir.  
 
Eslatma: yakka holda ishlatilgan, ya’ni o‘zidan keyin aniqlanmish kelmagan tartib son oldidan artikl qo‘yilmaydi. 
 
            She was first in her class. 
            U o‘z sinfida birinchi edi.  
            Our team is third in the standings. 
            Bizning lamoa mavqeyi bo‘yicha uchinchi. 
 
3. So‘zlovchi (yozuvchi) va tinglovchi (o‘quvchi) uchun ma’lum bo‘lgan kontekstda. 
 
            Here comes the teacher (one teacher known to the class). 
            Bu yoqqa o‘qituvchi kelyapti (sifga ma’lum bo‘lgan o‘qituvchi). 
            Turn on the light in the kitchen (only one light in one kitchen). 
            Oshxonadagi chiroqni yoq (oshxonada faqat bitta chiroq bor).  
            Have you been to the mountains recently? (mountains nearby that are known to everyone) 
            Siz yaqindda tog‘da bo‘ldingizmi? (shu yaqin atrofdagi hammaga ma’lum tog‘da) 
            They prefer to live in the city (the reader understands the difference between living in the country or suburbs and living in the               city). 
            Ular shaharda yashashni afzal ko‘radilar (o‘quvchi shaharda yoki uning chekkasida yashash bilan qishliqda yashash                       orasidagi farqni tushunadi).  
  
4.  Narsaning sinfini aniq ko‘rsatish uchun. Ko‘pincha 
otdan oldin keladi: 
 
            The child is the hope of the future. 
            Bola(lar) kelejak(imiz) umididir. 
            The nuclear threat is frightening. 
            Atom (bombasi) havfi dahshatga solmoqda.  
 
Aniq artikl the  ba’zan sifatdan oldin kelishi ham mumkin, masalan: 
 
            The eldery are often lonely. 
            Keksalar ko‘pincha yolg‘iz bo‘ladilar. 
            The handicapped need access to public buildings. 
            Nogironlarga jamoat binolariga kirish huquqini berish kerak.  
  
5. Ilovali birikmalar boshida. 
 
            This is my friend, the one I was telling you about.  
            Do this experiment first, the experiment on page 29. 
 
6. Yagona holda mavjud bo‘lgan narsalarni ifodalovchi otlar oldidan. 

            the sky                                       the moon                                       the president 
            osmon                                        oy                                                 prezident
            the sun                                       the earth                                        the capital 
            quyosh                                       yer                                                poytaxt 

            Tashkent is the capital of our country.  
            Toshkent mamlakatimizning poytaxti. 
            The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west.  
            Quyosh sharqdan chiqib, g‘arbga botadi. 
 
Artikllar (a/an, the) quyidagi hollarda ishlatilmaydi: 
1. Ot bir sinfga (turga) mansub bo‘lgan barcha narsalarni ifodalaganda: 
 
            Dogs are domestic animals. (all dogs)  
            Itlar uy hayvonlaridir. (barcha itlar). 
            Mary likes dogs. (all dogs)  
            Meri itlarni yaxshi ko‘radi. (barcha itlarni) 
            Man proposes; God disposes.  
            Insondan harakat, Allohdan barakat (man “kishi” so‘zi orqali barcha insonlar nazarda tutilgan)  
 
2. Bir turni boshqa turdan ajratish uchun: 
 
            Dogs, not squirrels, are domestic animals.  
            Olmaxonlar emas, itlar uy hayvonlaridir 
            Mary likes dogs, not cats.  
            Meri mushuklarni emas, itlarni yoqtiradi. 
            Men, not women, are boxers.  
            Ayollar emas, erkaklar bokschilardir. 
 
3. Bir turga mansub barcha narsalarni emas, qanchadir miqdori ifodalanganda: 
 
            Leaves are beginning to fall.  
            Barglar to‘kila boshlayapti. 
            Engineers make good salaries.  
            Injenerlar yaxshi maosh olishadi. 
            The edge of the field was marked by trees.  
            Dalaning cheti daraxtlar bilan belgilab qo‘yilgan edi. 
 
4. be fe‘lidan keyin kelgan ko‘plikdagi otlar bilan: 
 
            Most of my friends are students.  
            Do‘stlarimning ko‘pchiligi – student. 
            His sisters are teachers.  
            Uning opalari – o‘qituvchi. 
 
5. O‘ziga xos va yagona bo‘lgan muassasa va jarayonni ifodalovchi otlar bilan: 
 
            School begins Monday (a particular Monday).  
            Maktab dushanba (kuni) boshlanadi. 
            Breakfast will be late tomorrow (there will be only one breakfast tomorrow).  
            Ertaga nonushta kechikadi (ertaga faqat bir marta nonushta bo‘ladi). 
            People are angry with Congress (there is only one Congress in the country).  
            Odamlar Kongresdan norozi (mamlakatda faqat bitta Kongress bor), 

            lekin, 

            People are angry with the state legislature (one of many).  
            Odamlar davlat qonunchiligidan norozi (bir nechtadan bittasi). 
            People are angry with the city council (one of many).  
            Odamlar shahar kengashidan norozi (bir nechtadan bittasi). 
 
6. Quyidagilarga o‘xshash qotib qolgan iboralar, ko‘pincha juft otlar bilan: 
 
            man and wife                                            heaven and hell  
            er va xotin                                                jannat va do‘zax
            father and son                                          wind and rain
            ota (va) o‘g‘il                                            shamol va yomg‘ir
            brother and sister                                     snow and sleet
            aka-singil                                                qor va yomg‘ir (aralash yog‘ishi)
            lock and key                                           go home 
            qulf-kalit                                                  uyga bor 
            sun, moon and stars                                come home
            quyosh, oy va yulduzlar                            uyga kel          

 
7. Quyidagilarga o‘xshash old qo‘shimchali (predlogli) birikmalar bilan: 

            at war                         in danger                  on guard             by accident             out of control
            urushda                      xatarda                     himoyada                tasodifan                nazoratdan chiqqan 
            at peace                     in need                     on purpose              by design              out of danger
            tinchlik vaqtida            muhtojlikda               ataylab                    qasdan                 xatardan xoli 
            at ease                       in tears                    on fire                      by heart                out of date
            erkin                          ko‘z yosh to‘kib         o‘t ichida                  yoddan                 eskirgan
            at rest                        in reply                     on sale                     by surprise           out of door 
            dam olishda                javoban                     sotuvda                    to‘satdan              tashqarida 
            at sea                         in love                      on vacation               by chance            out of order
            dengiz bo‘yida             oshiqlikda                 o‘quv ta’tilida             tasodifan              buzilgan
            at lunch                       in difficulty               on time                     by mistake           out of stock
            lanchda                       qiyinchilikda             vaqtida                      yanglishib            qolmagan 

8. Gazetadagi bosh satrlar, kitob nomlari, belgilar, sarlavhalardagi yozuvlarda. 
 
            PRISONER FREED 
            MAHBUS OZOD QILINDI 
 
            ENTRANCE TO PARKING 
            TO‘XTASH JOYIGA KIRISH 
 
            BEWARE OF DOG 
            EHTIYOT BO‘LING IT BOR